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成人高考专升本英语重点复习资料(1)

来源: 编辑:硕博编辑3 发布时间:2020/11/25 9:45:53

 第一节 概 念

  一、开音节

  以发音的元音字母结尾、以“元音字母+不发音的e”结尾、以“一个元音字母+一个辅音字母(r除外)+不发音的e”结尾的音节都叫开音节。

  如:no, be, note.

  ★发音的元音字母:a, e, i, o, u

  二、闭音节

  以“一个元音字母+一个或几个辅音字母(r除外)”结尾的音节叫闭音节。

  如:map, plan, west.

  三、r音节

  以“元音字母+r”构成的音节叫r音节。

  如:car, doctor, teacher, dirty.

  词汇与语法

  40个小题,共40分。

  从2002,2003年的考题看,语法占20――25分。

  第一节 名 词(null)

  大纲要求掌握:

  一、可数名词与不可数名词

  二、可数名词的复数形式

  三、名词的所有格

  四、名词在句子中的作用

  一、可数名词与不可数名词

  名词分可数与不可数两种。

  可数名词表示某类人或东西中的个体。如table, country.

  或表示若干个体组成的集合体。如 family, people, committee, police.

  不可数名词表示无法分为个体的实物。如air, tea, furniture, water.

  或表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象概念。如work, information, advice, happiness.

  有些名词在一种场合下是可数名词,在另一种场合下是不可数名词。

  如room 房间(可数),空间(不可数)

  time 时间(不可数),次数(可数)

  fish 鱼(不可数),各种各样的鱼(可数)

  比较下列例句:

  There are nine rooms in the house. (房间,可数名词)

  There isnt enough room for us three in the car . (空间,不可数名词)

  不可数名词的数量可以通过在其前面加单位词来表示。

  如: 一块肉 a piece of meat

  两条长面包 two loaves of bread

  三件家具 three articles of furniture

  一大笔钱 a large sum of money

  二、可数名词的复数形式

  可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。名词复数的构成如下:

  1.一般情况下在名词后加-s.如:girls, books.

  ★浊辅音、元音结尾,s发[z]

  2.以s, x , ch, sh结尾的词在名词后加-es.如:glasses, boxes, matches, bushes.

  ★以s, x , ch, sh结尾,es发[iz]

  3.“辅音字母+y”结尾的词,变y为i再加-es.如:city-cities, country-countries.

  4.以o结尾的词多数加-es.如:heroes, tomatoes, potatoes.

  radios, zoos, photos, pianos, kilos 例外。

  5.f, fe 结尾的词,多数变f,fe为v再加-es.如:thief-thieves, leaf-leaves, half-halves, life-lives, wife-wives, knife-knives.

  少数名词有不规则的复数形式。如:man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, child-children, mouse-mice.

 ★可数名词复数一般情况下考不规则复数形式。

  个别名词的单数和复数的形式是一样的。如Chineses, Japanese, sheep, deer.

  三、名词的所有格

  名词的所有格表示所属关系, 起形容词的作用。

  当名词表示有生命的东西时,所有格一般是在词尾加 s .

  如:Jeans room, my daughter-in-laws friends, my daughters-in-laws friends, childrens books.

  如果名词已经有了复数词尾s, 则只需加。如:the teachers books, my parents car.

  时间名词的所有格在后面加s ,复数加 .如:todays newspaper, five minutes walk.

  当名词表示无生命的东西时,所有格常由“of”短语构成。

  如:the top of the world, the cover of the book, Chinas capital.

  加 s 或 的名词所有格可以表示店铺或某人的家。

  如:the grocers, the tailors, the Smiths .

  ★名词所有格考试常见部分是

  名词表示没有生命的东西时,不能直接在其后加s.

  时间名词所有格在其后加s,或复数名词后直接加。  四、名词在句子中的作用

  名词在句子中可以作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、表语、定语,有时可以作状语。

  名词、代词或其他结构作主语时,谓语动词在人称和数上必须与主语保持一致。

  1.主语是可数名词单数时,谓语动词用单数形式;主语是复数时,谓语动词用复数形式。

  All roads lead to Rome.(条条大路通罗马。)

  His brother is an industrial engineer.

  The number of the students attending the party is increasing.

  ★the number of 表示数量,无论后面名词是复数还是单数,谓语动词是单数形式。

  Two-thirds of the shop belongs to me.

  ★two-thirds 三分之二

  几分之几作主语,谓语是单数形式。

  belong to 属于某人

  Both of us are studying English.

  ★总结:在名词作主语时,the number of 谓语动词单数形式;

  几分之几,谓语单数形式;

  both 谓语使用复数形式。

  2、主语是不可数名词、不定式或动名词词组、从句时,谓语动词用单数形式。

  All the money he received was given to his mother.

  Forgetting the past means betrayal.

  What we are talking now is useless.

  3.主语部分若有as well as, with, together with, like, but, except等短语,谓语动词的单、复数与短语前面的名词一致。

  Mary, as well as her two sisters, is a student of this school.

  (as well as her two sisters 作主语Mary的主语补足语,主语 Mary 是单数,所以谓语动词用复数形式)

  No one except my friends knows anything about it.

  4.表示时间、距离、重量、价值等的复数名词作主语时,如果当作整体看待,谓语动词用单数形式。“…+(×)…=…”算式中的谓语动词也用单数形式。

  Three times two is six.

  Three kilometers is 3,ooo metres. (three kilometers作为整体来看)

  5.Either, neither作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

  Neither of us has been to Italy.

  Has either of them been to Shanghai?

  none代表可数的人或东西时,谓语动词可以用单数也可以用复数,代表不可数的东西时,谓语动词用单数形式。

  None of the students have/has seen the film.

  None of the money belongs to me.

  6.主语由either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also连接时,谓语形式由最邻近的主语决定。

  Not only you but also I am wrong.

  Neither my aunt nor I am going out this afternoon.

  Either you or she is to do the work.

7.主语中有and,如果表示单一概念,谓语动词用单数。

  The bread and butter is nice.

  8.主语前有many a, more than one修饰时,谓语动词用单数形式。

  Many a book has been read by the students.

  ★many a book=many books

  More than one person has been to the Great Wall.

  9.集合名词作主语,当作整体看待时,谓语动词用单数形式,当作每个独立的个体看待时,谓语动词用复数。

  The committee meets once a year. (作为整体)

  The committee are having a meeting now. (作为独立个体)

  People, police作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。

  The police have come to arrest him.

  名词部分考试重点

  1、可数名词与不可数名词里,哪几个词是不可数名词。

  2、可数名词复数形式重点掌握不规则形式,单、复数相同的名词。

  3、名词所有格重点掌握时间名词所有格在其后加s,复数加。

  4、名词在句中的作用,重点掌握刚才的9点。

  考点测试

  1.Ten days ______ long enough for Mr. Carter to finish his design. He doesnt need any more.

  A. is B. has been C. was D. had been

  ten days 作为一个整体看待,谓语用单数形式。(注意时态)

  答案 A

  2. Now, many people use the word Ms instead of Miss or Mrs, for example, before the names of ______ in business letters.

  A. woman manager B. women manager C. woman managers D. women managers

  names 是复数形式,其后的名词肯定是复数。

  两个名词变为复数,两个都要变。

  答案 D

  3. The number of students who failed the chemistry examination _____ to fifteen.

  A. have increased B. has increased C. is increased D. are increasing

  the number of 谓语动词用单数。

  答案 B

  4. Neither John nor his father _______ able to wake up early enough to catch the morning train.

  A. was B. were C. would be D. have been

  neither……nor谓语动词跟相邻的主语一致。

  答案 A

  5. The room is eight _______ long.

  A. foot B. foots C. feet D. feets

  foot 英尺,复数形式 feet

  答案 C

  6. When autumn comes, the ______ of trees begin to fall.

  A. leafs B. leafes C. leaves D. leaf

  leaf 的复数形式 leaves

  答案 C

  7. The flood has done _____ to this area.

  A. damages B. many damages C. much damage D. damaging

  8. Not only the students but also their teacher ______ at the meeting.

  A. was present B. were present C. have been presented D. has been presented

  not only…… but also 谓语动词与相邻名词一致。

  present 呈现,介绍

  答案 A

 9. One of the things she wrote about ______ life on a small farm at the beginning of the century.

  A. is B. was C. are D. were

  one of 谓语用单数。

  答案 B

  10. Only about one out of twelve of the young men and women of this country _____ college education.

  A. receive B. receives C. have received D. have been received

  one out of 谓语用单数形式。

  答案 B

  11. Never before ______ so many people been engaged in producing goods just for the comfort of man.

  A. has B. have C. will D. would

  never before开头,句子倒装。

  主语so many people为复数。

  engage in doing sth. 忙于做某事。

  答案 B

  12. At the bus stop _______ a soldier and two young people on their way to North Carolina.

  A. were B. was C. is D. sits and waits

  主语 a soldier and two young people为复数

  答案 A

  13. There ______ the last piece of cake and the last spoonful of ice cream.

  A. goes B. go C. gone D. was gone

  主语 the last piece of cake and the last spoonful of ice cream复数

  答案 B

  14. Mr. Brown, and not I , ________ chosen to be the representative of the class.

  A. is B. am C. are D. have been

  主语 Mr.Brown

  答案 A

  15. The teacher, as well as a number of students, _______ to attend the party.

  A. ask B. asks C. was asked D. were asked

  谓语动词与as well as前面的名词一致。

  答案 C

  16. The hostess together with the guests of honor ________ comfortably in the living room.

  A. was seated B. seated C. were seated D. were seating

  谓语与 together with 前的名词一致

  be seated 就坐

  Please be seated ladies and gentlmen.

  Seat the boy next to his brother.

  答案 A

  17. The father, rather than the brothers, _______ responsible for the accident.

  A. is B. are C. have been D. has

  主语 the father ,单数

  be responsible for 对……负责

  答案 A

  18. Either Carol or Grace ______ to the concert, but one of them has to stay home.

  A. is coming B. are coming C. will coming D. have come

  either……or 谓语动词与临近主语一致。

  答案 A

  19. The total amount of money ______ 100 dollars.

  A. is B. are C. has D. have

  money 不可数名词,谓语动词单数。

  答案 A

20. Great quantities of fish _____ on high seas.

  A. is caught B. are caught C. catch D. is catching

  quantities 复数形式

  答案 B

  21. Either of the young ladies _____ perfectly qualified to teach Greek and Latin.

  A. is B. are C. has D. have

  either打头,谓语动词单数。

  答案 A

  22. Having studied your report carefully, I am convinced that neither of your solutions _____ correct.

  A. are B. is C. had D. will

  neither 两者都不,谓语动词单数。

  答案 B

  23. In some countries each of the citizens ______ to decide government policies.

  A. helps B. help C. are helped D. is helped

  each 每一个,谓语动词单数。

  答案 A

  24. The nurse added_____ to the medcine to make the ease for the child to take.

  A. some sugar B. some sugars C. a sugar D. sugars

  suger 不可数名词

  答案 A

  take medcine 吃药

  25. “I like your furniture very much.”

  “Thank you. We bought ____ in Beijing.”

  A. the most of them B. the most of it C. most of them D. most of it

  furniture 不可数名词

  答案 D

  26. Jim was upset last night because he had to do too______.

  A. many homework B. a few homeworks C. few homeworks D. much homework

  homework 不可数名词

  答案 D

  27. Im going away for a ______.

  A. holiday of a week B. week holiday C. holiday week D. weeks holiday

  表示时间的名词所有格可以在其后加s .

  答案 D


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