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成人高考专升本英语重点复习资料(3)

来源: 编辑:硕博编辑3 发布时间:2020/11/25 9:49:16

代 词(2-2~3-3)

  包括

  人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、指示代词、疑问代词、关系代词、不定代词及其用法。

  一、人称代词

  人称代词有第一、第二、第三人称和单数、复数之分,在句子中可以作主语和宾

  语。英语中有下列人称代词:

  在并列的主语或宾语中,I或me 通常放在后面。如:

  Liping and I are in charge of the work.

  My farther asks my sister and me to have dinner with him tomorrow.

  二、物主代词

  物主代词有形容词型与名词型之分。形容词型物主代词在句子中作定语,名词型物主代词在句子中主要作主语、宾语、表语、定语(接在of 后面)。英语中有下列物主代词:

  名词型的物主代词相当于形容词型的物主代词加上上文出现的名词。如:

  My bag is yellow, his(his bag) is black and theirs(their bags) are brown.

  三、反身代词

  英语中有下列反身代词:

  反身代词在句子中可以作宾语、表语、同位语等。如:

  Please help yourself to some tea.(宾语)

  The boy is too young to look after himself.(宾语)

  Ill be myself again in no time.(表语)

  The desk itself is not so heavy. (同位语)

  I fixed the door myself. (同位语)

  四、指示代词

  指示代词包括this, that, these, those 和such, 在句子中可以作主语、定语、表语、宾语等(such不作宾语)。

  that和those有时分别用来代表前面提到的不可数名词和名词复数,以避免重复。而可数名词单数往往用the one 或that one 来代替。用the one 的时候更多一些。如:

  These machines are better than those we turned out last year. 生产

  The oil output of this year is much higher than that of last year. 产量

  The best wine is that from France.

  My room is lighter than the one next door.

  Ill take the seat next to the one by the window.

  The film is more funny than that one.

  that 可以指上面提到的事情,this指下面要谈的事情。如:

  They have no time to read the books. Thats their trouble.

  She was ill yesterday. Thats why she was absent.

  I want to know this: How much money we have left?

  What I want to say is this: Pronunciation is very important in learning English.

  this 和that 有时还可以用来表示程度。如:

  I dont want that much.

  He is not that wise.

  The book is about this thick.

 五。疑问代词

  疑问代词包括what, which, who, whom, whose, 可以用来构成特殊疑问句,也可以引导名词从句。 What, which, who在句子中作主语或宾语,whom作宾语,whose作定语。如:

  Who is speaking? (主语)

  Which do you prefer, the yellow one or the white one? (宾语)

  Whats your sister?(表语)

  The man who is talking with my mother is an engineer.(引导定从句)

  The old man whose son is studying abroad is our formal dean of the department. (引导定从句)

  This is the plane which will fly to Wuhan this afternoon. (引导定从句)

  I dont remember whom I have lent my dictionary to. (引导宾语从句)

  疑问代词what, which, who, whom后面可以加ever来加重语气。如:

  Whoever can be calling at this time of the night ?谁这么深更半夜来找人?

  Ill say whatever comes into my head.

  Take whichever book you like.

  六。不定代词

  不定代词包括both, either, neither, all, none, no, one, each, every, few, a few, little, a little, many, much, some, any, other, another, 以及some, any, no, every构成的合成代词。

  (一)both, either, neither

  both 表示“两者(都)”,either表示“(两者之中)任何一个”,neither表示“(两者之中)没有一个”。三个词在句子中都可以作主语、宾语、定语,both还可以作同位语。

  My sister is good at planning her time so that she always has enough time for both work and play.(be good at 擅长做某事)

  Neither of the answers is right.

  Either of the books belongs to you.

  You and I are both to blame.

  You both agreed to stay.

  Both 放在实意动词前,系动词be 的后面。

  (二)all, none, no, one

  all和none用于三者以上的场合,分别表示“全部都”和“一个都没有”,none往往与of连用。

  All of us are fond of sports.(be fond of 爱好)

  We are all for him.(be for sb 支持某人)

  Grasp all, lose all. 什么都抓,什么都抓不住。(谚)

  None of them know how to read and write.

  A friend to all is a friend to none. 滥交者无友。(谚)

  None of us are perfect.

  None of them has had that kind of experience.

  no表示“没有”,在句子中只能作定语,相当于not a 或not any,not否定动词,no否定名词。

  Time and tide wait for no man. 岁月不等人。(谚)

  No man is born wise. 没有人是生来聪明的。(谚)

  Im no dancer. (Im not a dancer.)

  one 指代上文提到的人或物,前面可以加定冠词,可以有自己的定语,还可以有复数形式。

  Your answer is a good one.

  I dont like coloured envelopes. I like white ones.

  I havent got a raincoat. Ill have to buy one.

  (三)each, every

  each 和every表示“每一个”,every 在句子中只能作定语,each 可以作主语、宾语、定语、同位语。

  The headmaster shook hands with each of the teacher.(shake hands with 握手)

  The students try to set aside a little money each month.(set aside 节约)

  From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs(work)。各尽所能,按需分配。

  I have every reason to believe that she can finish the job well.

  There is every possibility of our winning the game.

  every 还常用在every little while (每隔一会),every other day, every three days(每隔两天),every ten miles(每隔十英里), every now and then (不时),every four years, every other line, one out of every three students.

  (四)few, a few, little, a little, many, much

  few, a few, many 修饰或指代可数名词,little, a little, much修饰或指代不可数名词。few, little表示否定,a few, a little表示肯定,much常用于否定句中。

  Many hands make light work. 人多好办事。(谚)

  Few words are best. 话少最好。(谚)

  They don‘t take much interest in it.

  I know little about it.

  There‘s a little water left in the jar.

  Few of them have been to India.

  I‘ve read a few books written by Dickens.

  (五)other, the other, others, the others, another

  Forty people came to the meeting. Two of them were from Japan, the others from America.

  Many people came to attend the meeting. Some were from Japan, others were from America.

  The United States, unlike many other countries, receives a large number of immigrants every year from all over the world.

  The twin sisters are so alike that we find it difficult to tell one from the other.(so……that 如此以至于 tell sb. from 区分)

  Some students are watering the flowers, others are weeding the fields.

  The task will be finished in another three days.

  Four of them are in the classroom. What about the others?

  Please give me another example to illustrate your point.

  There are three apples on the table. One is for my mother, another is for my father and the third is for me.

七、it的用法

  1.指代一个人或事物。

  Its only a fifteen-minute ride to my school.

  It often rains in the south of China.

  “Whos that?” “Its Liming.”

  Its early spring.

  2.作句子的形式主语,代替不定式、动名词或从句。

  It took me five minutes to finish reading the exercise.

  It cost me five yuan to buy the pen.

  The color TV set costs me more than 2,000 yuan.

  I spent ten hours in finishing the work.

  I spent twenty yuan on the shirt.

  It is no use crying now. Youd better study hard now.(it is no use doing sth. )

  To his surprise, it turned out that Tom failed the entrance examination.(to ones surprise 使某人感到惊奇)

  Its a pity that you didnt watch the match.

  It is necessary for us to have some exercise every day.

  3.作句子的形式宾语,代替不定式、动名词或从句。

  They all regard it their duty to help the poor people.

  I dont think it worthwhile taking so much trouble.(Its worthwhile doing. 做……事是值得的)

  We find it difficult to learn English without practicing.

  I think it no use telling them.

  I dont think it very important that we should take part in the discussion.(take part in 参加)

  He feels it his duty to help others.

  4.构成强调句型。当强调的部分是主语,并且主语是人时,句型中的that 也可以换作who.

  强调句基本构成 it is that…

  It is in the room that we met each other for the first time.

  It was not until 1936 that basketball became a part of the Olympic Games.(not until 直到……才)

  It was they who attended the meeting last week.

  It is because the book is so useful for my work that I bought it.

  考试重点

  that和those有时分别用来代表前面提到的不可数名词和名词复数,以避免重复。而可数名词单数往往用the one 或that one 来代替。that 可以指上面提到的事情,this指下面要谈的事情。

  不定代词中,both 放在实意动词前,系动词be 的后面。every只能跟名词,each可以跟名词也可以不跟名词。every在代词部分要出现当每隔……讲。

  few, a few, many 修饰或指代可数名词,little, a little, much修饰或指代不可数名词。few, little表示否定。

  one the other,some others,the others

  it用法重点就是强调句。it作为形式宾语时不接is.

  代词部分的难点之一是名词型物主代词与形容词型物主代词的区别。顾名思义,形容词型物主代词起的是形容词的作用,在句子中只能作定语,名词型物主代词起的是名词的作用,代替上文出现的名词,在句子中一般作主语、宾语、表语等。

  Lets clean their room first and ______ later.

  A. our B. us C. we D. ours

  (答案为D,ours 相当于our room.)

  代词部分的主要考核点是不定代词。如some, any, few, a few, little, a little, many, much, one, none, all, both, either, neither, each, every, other, another, 以及some, any, no, every 与body, one, thing 构成的合成代词。

  (1)泛指与特指。如:another, other, others 是泛指,the other, the others是特指。

  (2)肯定与否定。如:a few, a little, either, some 及其合成代词表示肯定,few, little, none, neither, any 及其合成代词表示否定。

  (3)可数与不可数。如:few, a few, many, one 修饰或指代可数名词,little, a little, much修饰或指代不可数名词。

  代词部分的另一个考核点是it.

  it 可以代替上文出现的单数事物。

  The picture was changed while drawn from memory as it passed through the class. (it 指代the picture.)

  it takes sb. some time to do sth. 花费某人多长时间做某事

  It takes half an hour or so to walk to the bus stop.

  He made it plain that he was annoyed with me.

  it 还可以构成强调句型,即“It is / was +被强调的部分+ that …”。当强调的部分是人,并且是主语时,that可以换成who.强调句去掉it is / was 与that即成为普通的句子。

  It was last night that I saw you in the restaurant.

  It was she who / that suggested that he go to New York in order to get a direct flight.

  典型例题

  1. “How often do you take the medicine ?”

  “______ four hours.”

  A. For B. Any C. Every D. Each

  答案 C

  2. “Is this bike yours?”

  “No, its ______.”

  A. Bob B. Bobs C. Bobs D. Bobs

  答案 C

  3. “Is there ______ good on TV this evening?”

  “Sorry, nothing good. ”

  A. nothing B. something C. anything D. everything

  肯定句中用something,否定句和疑问句中用anything.

  答案 C

  4. You have a good suggestion, but its not as practical as _______.

  A. he B. him C. his D. her

  答案 C

  5. A chemist prepares his experiments carefully before trying to carry _____ in his lab.

  A. it out B. out it C. them out D. out them

  carry out 实施 宾格放在词组中间,名词放在词组后面。如,carry out his experiments

  答案 C

  6. Nowadays _____ seems to enjoy looking at fat girls. That is why many companies have developed special foods to help people to slim(苗条)。

  A. everyone B. anybody C. somebody D. no one

  enjoy doing sth.

  anybody在疑问句和否定句中指没有人,在肯定句中指任何人。

  答案 D

  7. You have to hurry up if you want to buy eggs because theres hardly _____ left.

  A. anything B. something C. nothing D. everything

  hardly 否定词,几乎不的意思。

  答案 A


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